Anticipate This!™ | Patent and Trademark Law Blog

They Invented What? (No. 166)

Posted in They Invented What? by Jake Ward on April 14, 2010

U.S. Pat. No. 6,863,536: Endoscopic tutorial system with a bleeding complication.

 

What is claimed:

1. A system for performing a simulated medical procedure, comprising: (a) a simulated organ; (b) a simulated instrument for performing the simulated medical procedure on said simulated organ; (c) a locator for determining a location of said simulated instrument within said simulated organ; and (d) a visual display for displaying images according to said location of said simulated instrument within said simulated organ for providing visual feedback, such that said images simulate actual visual data received during an actual medical procedure as performed on an actual subject, said visual display including: (i) a three-dimensional mathematical model for modeling said simulated organ according to a corresponding actual organ, said model being divided into a plurality of segments, said plurality of segments being arranged in a linear sequence; (ii) a loader for selecting at least one of said plurality of segments from said linear sequence for rendering, said at least one of said plurality of segments being selected according to said location of said simulated instrument within said simulated organ; (iii) a controller for rendering a simulated image from said segment according to said location of said simulated instrument; (iv) a bleeding model for simulating a presence of blood in said simulated image wherein said blood is simulated and rendered according to said bleeding model, and wherein said rendered blood is added to said rendered simulated image wherein said bleeding model simulates bleeding caused by a pathological condition simulated for said simulated organ and bleeding caused by an action with said simulated instrument; and (iv) a displayer for displaying said rendered simulated image. 

2. The system of claim 1, wherein said visual displayer further comprises: (vi) a texture mapping database for storing texture mapping data; and (vii) a texture mapping engine for overlaying said simulated image with said texture mapping data substantially before said simulated image is displayed by said displayer. 

3. The system of claim 2, wherein said texture mapping data comprises animation of random movement of said simulated instrument and random movement of said simulated organ. 

4. The system of claim 2, wherein said texture mapping data includes images obtained from performing said actual medical procedure on said actual subject. 

5. The system of claim 4, wherein said images are obtained by first recording said visual data during said performance and then selecting said images from said recorded visual data. 

6. The system of claim 1, wherein said mathematical model features a plurality of polygons constructed according to a spline, said spline determining a geometry of said mathematical model in three dimensions. 

7. The system of claim 6, wherein a deformation in said mathematical model corresponding to a deformation in said simulated organ is determined by altering said spline. 

8. The system of claim 7, wherein said deformation in said simulated organ is a local deformation, said local deformation of said simulated organ being determined according to said mathematical model by adding polygons to a portion of said mathematical model, such that said portion of said mathematical model is deformed to produce said local deformation. 

9. The system of claim 6, wherein said mathematical model is constructed from said spline by modeling said simulated organ as a straight line and altering said spline until said mathematical model fits said corresponding actual organ. 

10. The system of claim 9, wherein said controller selects said simulated image according to at least one previous movement of said simulated instrument within said simulated organ. 

11. The system of claim 1, wherein said bleeding model produces a plurality of particles for simulating a stream of blood. 

12. The system of claim 11, wherein said particles are rendered as a two-dimensional particle. 

13. The system of claim 12, wherein each particle is rendered as an elongated ellipse for at least partially overlapping with at least one other particle. 

14. The system of claim 11, wherein said plurality of particles is rendered in groups of particles, each group including a lead fully rendered particle, and a plurality of partially rendered trailing particles. 

15. The system of claim 1, wherein said simulated organ is a gastro-intestinal tract. 

16. The system of claim 15, wherein said bleeding is simulated according to a medical condition selected from the group consisting of an ulcer, a Mallory-Weiss tear, a tumor and Dieulafoi’s lesion. 

17. The system of claim 15, wherein said gastro-intestinal tract is constructed from a semi-flexible, smooth material. 

18. The system of claim 15, wherein said simulated instrument is an endoscope, said endoscope featuring a sensor for determining a location of said sensor in said gastro-intestinal tract, the system further comprising: (e) a computer for determining said visual feedback according to said location of said sensor. 

19. The system of claim 18, further comprising a tactile feedback mechanism for providing simulated tactile feedback according to said location of said tip of said endoscope. 

20. The system of claim 1, wherein at least one of a type and a characteristic of bleeding simulated by said bleeding model is capable of being varied according to said bleeding model. 

21. The system of claim 1, wherein said simulated blood comprises a plurality of particles being rendered according to said bleeding model. 

22. The system of claim 1, wherein said simulated, rendered blood additionally comprises texture mapping obtained from images of actual blood. 

23. The system of claim 1, wherein said displayer further displays a graphical user interface. 

24. The system of claim 23, wherein said graphical user interface displays tutorial information for aid in performing the medical procedure. 

25. The system of claim 1, wherein said loader further comprises a rapidly accessed memory for storing said segment. 

26. The system of claim 1, wherein said mathematical model features a plurality of polygons defined with respect to a spline, said spline determining a geometry of said mathematical model in three dimensions. 

27. A method for performing a simulated endoscopic procedure, the method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a system for performing the simulated endoscopic procedure, comprising: (i) a simulated gastro-intestinal tract; (ii) a simulated endoscope for performing the simulated endoscopic procedure on said simulated gastro-intestinal tract; (iii) a locator for determining a location of said simulated endoscope within said simulated gastro-intestinal tract; and (iv) a visual display for displaying images according to said simulated endoscope within said simulated gastro-intestinal tract, such that said images simulate visual data received during an actual medical procedure as performed on an actual subject, said visual display including: (1) a three-dimensional mathematical model of said simulated gastro-intestinal tract, said model being divided into a plurality of segments; (2) a loader for selecting at least one of said plurality of segments for display, said at least one of said plurality of segments being selected according to said location of said simulated endoscope within said simulated gastro-intestinal tract; (3) a controller for selecting a simulated image from said segment according to said location of said simulated instrument; (4) a bleeding model for simulating a presence of blood in said simulated image, wherein said bleeding model simulates bleeding caused by a pathological condition simulated for said simulated organ and bleeding caused by an action with said simulated instrument; and (5) a displayer for displaying said simulated image according to said controller, such that said simulated image is a displayed image; (b) inserting said simulated endoscope into said simulated gastro-intestinal tract; (c) receiving visual feedback according to said displayed image; and (d) receiving tactile feedback according to said location of said endoscope within said gastro-intestinal tract. 

28. A method for displaying simulated visual data of a medical procedure performed on an actual human organ with an actual medical instrument, the method comprising the steps of: (a) recording actual data from a performance of an actual medical procedure on a living human patient; (b) abstracting a plurality of individual images from said actual data; (c) digitizing said plurality of individual images to form a plurality of digitized images; (d) selecting at least one of said plurality of digitized images to form a selected digitized image; (e) storing said selected digitized image as texture mapping data in a texture mapping database; (f) providing a mathematical model for bleeding in the actual human organ; (g) providing a mathematical model of the actual human organ, said model being divided into a plurality of segments; (h) selecting one of said plurality of segments from said model for display; (i) overlaying said texture mapping data from said texture mapping database onto said segment of said model to form at least one resultant image; (j) overlaying simulated blood over at least a portion of said at least one resultant image using a bleeding model wherein said bleeding model simulates bleeding caused by a pathological condition simulated for said simulated organ and bleeding caused by an action with said simulated instrument; and (k) displaying said resultant image. 

29. A method for displaying simulated visual data of a medical procedure performed on an actual human organ with an actual medical instrument, the method comprising: (a) recording actual data from a performance of an actual medical procedure on a living human patient; (b) abstracting a plurality of individual images from said actual data; (c) digitizing said plurality of individual images to form a plurality of digitized images; (d) selecting at least one of said plurality of digitized images to form a selected digitized image; (e) storing said selected digitized image; (f) providing a mathematical model for bleeding in the actual human organ, said mathematical model modeling blood as a plurality of particles wherein said mathematical model for bleeding simulates bleeding caused by a pathological condition simulated for said simulated organ and bleeding caused by an action with said simulated instrument; (g) providing a mathematical model of the actual human organ, said model being divided into a plurality of segments; (h) selecting one of said plurality of segments from said model for display; (i) selecting at least one image according to said segment of said model; (j) overlaying simulated blood over at least a portion of said at least one image to form a simulated image; and (k) displaying said simulated image. 

30. A system for simulating a medical procedure, the system comprising: (a) an instrument for being manipulated for performing the simulated medical procedure; (b) a three-dimensional mathematical model of an organ, such that a virtual location of said instrument in the organ during the simulated medical procedure is determined according to said three-dimensional mathematical model, wherein said mathematical model features a spline, said spline determining a geometry of said mathematical model in three dimensions; (c) a bleeding model for simulating a presence of blood in organ during said simulated medical procedure wherein said bleeding model simulates bleeding caused by a pathological condition simulated for said simulated organ and bleeding caused by an action with said simulated instrument; (d) a visual display for providing visual feedback according to said virtual location, said three-dimensional mathematical model and said bleeding model; and (e) a tactile feedback mechanism for providing simulated tactile feedback according to said virtual location of said instrument. 

31. The system of claim 30, wherein a deformation in said mathematical model corresponding to a deformation in the organ is determined by altering said spline. 

32. The system of claim 31, wherein said deformation in the organ is a local deformation, said local deformation of said simulated organ being determined according to said mathematical model by adding polygons to a portion of said mathematical model, such that said portion of said mathematical model is deformed to produce said local deformation. 

33. The system of claim 30, wherein said mathematical model is constructed from said spline by modeling the organ as a straight line and altering said spline until said mathematical model fits the organ. 

34. The system of claim 30, wherein said instrument comprises a forceps and said visual feedback includes a display of a simulated loop of said forceps for performing a polypectomy. 

35. The system of claim 30, wherein said instrument is an endoscope featuring an endoscope cable, said endoscope cable forming a loop from a movement of said endoscope in the organ, said loop being modeled according to a mathematical model. 

36. The system of claim 35, wherein said mathematical model for said loop features a plurality of polygons defined with respect to a spline. 

37. The system of claim 36, wherein a size of said loop is determined according to a differential between an amount of said endoscope cable within the organ and a length of the organ from an entry point of said endoscope to said virtual location of said endoscope within the organ. 

38. The system of claim 30, wherein said bleeding model produces a plurality of particles for simulating a stream of blood. 

39. The system of claim 38, wherein said particles are rendered as a two-dimensional particle. 

40. The system of claim 39, wherein each particle is rendered as an elongated ellipse for at least partially overlapping with at least one other particle. 

41. The system of claim 38, wherein said plurality of particles is rendered in groups of particles, each group including a lead fully rendered particle, and a plurality of partially rendered trailing particles. 

42. A system for simulating a medical surgical procedure and a bleeding model for simulating a presence of blood in organ during said simulated medical procedure, the system comprising a three-dimensional mathematical model corresponding to an actual organ, wherein said mathematical model is comprised of a plurality of polygons constructed according to a mathematical spline-based algorithm, said spline determining a geometry of said mathematical model in three dimensions that is capable of providing visual and tactile feedback and wherein said bleeding model simulates bleeding caused by a pathological condition simulated for said simulated organ and bleeding caused by an action with said simulated instrument. 

43. The system of claim 42, whereby the spline-based algorithms are capable of operating on a standard PC computer processor. 

44. The system of claim 42, whereby the spline-based algorithms are recalculated to provide real-time visual and haptic feedback.

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